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A Research on Art Education Students’ Use of Airbrush in the Light of Social Transformations
Through the human history, art, which maintains its development within the organization called society, is almost as old as religion. Even before the invention of writing, people found a way to express themselves through lines, shapes, and colors. The phenomenon of art has underwent a variety of changes over time. Today, it manifests itself in a variety of forms with these effects and changes. Single viewpoint was abandoned after Renaissance, and the traditional art based on Naturalism was left with Cubism. These milestones paved the way for a new era. After these developments, changes in the society of industrial age caused the people of the period, who try to examine them through wide perspectives, to question and perceive the place of art in these changes with the effect of industrial revolution. All of these perceptions/questions of humanity improved the skill of interpretation, and moved the art to different dimensions with the help of novel tools. One of these tools is airbrush. It is assumed that primitive men used it. The traces on cave walls show that this technology was used in that period. Most of these traces were formed by spraying paint in the shape of a handprint. Moreover, cavemen sprayed paint by filling the animal bones with blood 17 000 years ago. However, the airbrush used today is dated back to the second half of 17th century. The first patent of a tool, which was similar to airbrush, was obtained in 1876 by Francis Edgar Stanley. Francis Edgar Stanley and his twin brother used this tool to cover photo plates in Dry Plate Companies. However, any artwork wasn’t produced using this paint distributor. Airbrush is based on the rationale of paint spray gun. Technically, the paint coming from the paint reservoir in the pistol is dissolved into molecules with the effect of compressed air, and then the paint is sprayed on a surface in small drop particles. Airbrush is a technique that provide convenience for many artists. It evolved over time and became what it is today. Although it is an old tool, it was frequently used in artworks in the beginning of 90s. In fact, it is possible to encounter this technique in the works of graphic artists and photorealist artists. The population of this research was composed of universities in Turkey, which comprise department of art and the department of art education. Within this context, 18 universities including 28 faculties took place in the research. The questionnaires were conducted with 964 participants. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The main aim of this research was to determine whether the participants had airbrush, and to what extent they knew how to use this technology. Descriptive research design was used in this study. “Technology Perception” questionnaire, which was based on expert opinions, was used as the data collection tool. Instructions were prepared for participants in order to standardize the data collection process. The returns of the data collection tools took 6 months from universities. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 22 Software. The study was composed of four parts. In Introduction section, the historical development of airbrush and its usage areas were explained. After the literature review, the aim and problems of the study were included. In the second part, the method of the study was discussed. The findings were presented in the third part. The results and recommendations were presented in the final part of the study.

Key Words: Art Education, Technology, Airbrush

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