#### Abstract

An Analysis of Problem Structures Based on Four Operations of Natural Numbers in Primary Math Textbooks

The aim of the study is to analyse the structure of four-operation problems in the field of natural numbers learning in the primary math textbooks for the first grade through fourth grade. These problems were analysed with a descriptive approach. In the analysis the problems were classified based on the categories developed by Riley, Greeno and Heller’e (1984), and Toluk and Olkun (2002). For the problems covered in the first grade math textbooks are found as follows: 51,72% of them require the operation of addition. The results of such problems are unknown in the category of combination. On the other hand, 48.26% of them require the operation of subtraction and their results are mostly unknown in the category of disticntion. The problems covered in the second grade math textbooks are divided into three groups as follows: of these problems 35.03% require addition and combination, and their results are unknown; 28.45% require subtraction and distinction, and their results are unknown; and 36.48% require either multiplication or division and equal groups, and their results are unknown. In regard to the math problems included in the textbooks for the third grade it was found that 35.78% require addition and combination, and their results are unknown; 14.73% require subtraction and distinction, and their results are unknown; and 49.47% require either multiplication or division and equal groups, and their results are unknown. The problems included in the math textbooks for the fourth grades have three categories as follows: of them 36.35% require addition, combination and their results are unknown; 27.27% require subtraction and distinction, and their results are unknown; and 36.36% require either multiplication or division and equal groups, and their results are unknown.

**Keywords**

Primary math course, problems of four operations, problem structures, primary math coursebook